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Substation Grounding Systems

Dates & Locations

    Overview

    ​Safety remains a key concern for utilities, specifically in terms of protecting human life, and ensuring reliable network operation.  Both public and substation equipment are protected by comprehensive grounding infrastructures, but the story does not stop there. Grounding systems are subject to weathering, corrosion, damage and general wear. System integrity must be inspected and tested on a regular basis. Another critical issue is the ongoing need to transfer more power through an existing infrastructure. Utility engineers must accurately assess the condition of grounding systems to ensure they are capable of dissipating additional fault current.
     
    This course covers the theory behind the substation grounding system design, and demonstrates mathematical models of the grounding system. This course describes test methods and numerical models to characterize soil resistivity into a two layer soil model. Participants learn test methods to measure other important grounding system parameters, such as interconnected grounding impedance, neutral and overhead ground wire current splits. Then, functional requirements of temporary working grounds are discussed followed by their installation configuration, maintenance and testing.
     
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    Course Outline

    Introduction to Grounding Systems

    • Safe limits of current through human body
    • Safe step and touch potential

    Electrical Characteristics of Soil

    • Classification of soils and their resistivity ranges
    • Uniform / non-uniform multiple layer soils
    • Soil resistivity test methods
      • Wenner Method
      • Schlumberger-Palmer method
      • Measurement interpretation
      • Characterizing soil resistivity into two-layer soil model
    • Role of crushed stone layer in providing safe work environment
    • Use of chemicals, bentonite and concrete encased electrodes

    Station Grounding System Design - Basic Modeling Techniques

    • Fault at the station and along a line
    • Calculation of resistance for different electrodes
    • Station ground electrodes
    • Overhead ground wires & distribution neutrals
    • Current splits (current path on faults)
    • Step and touch potential

    Grounding Test Services

    • Current injection test
      • Interconnected ground impedance measurement
      • Ground potential rise measurement
      • Step and touch potential measurement
      • Current split measurement
    • Soil resistivity test
    • Grid integrity test
    • Transient impedance of transmission line towers

    Temporary Working Grounds

    • Functional Requirements
    • System Conditions
    • Installation Configurations
    • Modes of Failure
    • Maintenance & Testing​

    Who Should Attend

    This course is specifically designed for:

    • Consulting and utility engineers responsible for substation grounding system design
    • New engineers facing practical grounding issues for the first time
    • Maintenance engineers responsible for the confirmation of grounding system integrity
    • Utility engineers responsible for the refurbishment of substations

    Key Benefits

    Gain an understanding of:
    • Regulations and grounding system requirements
    • Grounding design principles
    • Available grounding system test methods
    • The relationship between people, equipment and grounding systems

    Instructors

    • Emanuel Petrache Ph.D


      Emanuel Petrache is a Senior Engineer with over ten years of industrial and academic experience in electromagnetic compatibility problems, including lightning effects​

    • Ehsan Azordegan Ph.D., P.Eng


      Ehsan received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Tehran, Iran in 2003 and 2006 respectively.  He then received his Ph.D. in High Voltage Engineering from the University of Manitoba, Canada in 2015. At Kinectrics, Ehsan has been mainly involved with the design and testing of the grounding system of HV substations. Being a principal engineer at the Transmission and Distribution Department at Kinectrics, he has also worked on a number projects related to  interference coordination for pipeline installations near transmission line corridors, stray voltage measurements, as well as mitigation studies to improve ground grid performance at areas with poor soil conditions. Ehsan is also an active member of IEEE PES working groups and currently the secretary of E6 working group “IEEE 81: Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Grounding System”.​

    Contact Training


    Training Locations

    • Head Office

      800 Kipling Ave., Unit 2
      Toronto, Ontario, M8Z 5G5

      Map


      416-207-6000

      416-207-6532



    Temporary Working Grounds

    • Functional Requirements
    • System Conditions
    • Installation Configurations
    • Modes of Failure
    • Maintenance & Testing

    Grounding Test Services

    • Current injection test
      • Interconnected ground impedance measurement
      • Ground potential rise measurement
      • Step and touch potential measurement
      • Current split measurement
    • Soil resistivity test
    • Grid integrity test
    • Transient impedance of transmission line towers

    Station Grounding System Design - Basic Modeling Techniques

    • Fault at the station and along a line
    • Calculation of resistance for different electrodes
    • Station ground electrodes
    • Overhead ground wires & distribution neutrals
    • Current splits (current path on faults)
    • Step and touch potential

    Electrical Characteristics of Soil

    • Classification of soils and their resistivity ranges
    • Uniform / non-uniform multiple layer soils
    • Soil resistivity test methods
      • Wenner Method
      • Schlumberger-Palmer method
      • Measurement interpretation
      • Characterizing soil resistivity into two-layer soil model
    • Role of crushed stone layer in providing safe work environment
    • Use of chemicals, bentonite and concrete encased electrodes

    Introduction to Grounding Systems

    • Safe limits of current through human body
    • Safe step and touch potential