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Reference Scaling Factors for Low and Intermediate Level Waste

Characterization of Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste over the long term
L&ILW presently being stored for a client will be disposed of in a designated location for the long-term. The radioactivity content of the wastes is required to perform safety assessments for supporting facility license applications.
In addition, facility safety assessment also requires data on chemical compositions, including the levels of hazardous constituents, present in the wastes.  
Kinectrics has been involved in the production of Reference Scaling Factors for L&ILW since 1999 and performs a series of planned work activities to characterize identified L&ILW streams every year. The work involves many varied sampling programs, radiochemical characterization and method development, and documentation.
A database of radioactive characterization data is maintained and updated annually. In general, wastes contain alpha (a), beta (b) and gamma (γ) emitting radionuclides. Gamma emitting radionuclides, such as Co-60 and Cs-137, are easy-to-measure (ETM), while a emitting radionuclides such as Pu-238 and b emitting radionuclides such as C-14 and Ni-63 are difficult-to-measure (DTM).
Scaling factors are employed to estimate the concentrations of DTM radionuclides based on the concentrations of ETM radionuclides.
Kinectrics role covers:
§  Maintenance of Scaling Factor Database;
§  Radiochemical characterization of samples;
§  Collection of field samples (notably resin samples);
§  Investigative activities as required (such as ignition of zirconium materials);
§  State-of-the- art reviews of waste characterization history in key waste streams (e.g., pressure tubes and resins);
Supporting technical activities as required with expert review of key documents.